1Stellenbosch University, South Africa
CaHReF 2018, Yaoundé Congres hall, 08 – 11 January 2019 , OSEP019
Background: In Cameroon, very few studies have been carried out to assess the different types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); that is responsible for more than 90% of cervical cancer cases worldwide.
Objectif: Determine the pattern of HPV detection in a cohort of adolescent and young women vaccinated and not vaccinated against HPV 16/18
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 194 Cameroonian women, previously detected with cervical lesions using Papanicolaou (Pap) test. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to correlate this prevalence with precancerous lesions observed. Samples were genotyped using multiplex PCR. Primers used were designed from the PRIMER 3 software, the Î² - globin gene was used as internal control.
Results: Molecular analysis results obtained shows that most (146) of the women in the study population presented a low-risk (LR) or high-risk (HR) variant of HPV. In most cases, combinations of genotypes of high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV were detected. Lesions in which these genotypes were mostly encountered were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). 8.57 % of genotype 16 was detected in patients with ASCUS. The HR genotype 18 was detected in LSIL (5.71%). Genotypes 45 and 16 were more prevalent. Among LR genotypes, genotype 6 was the most predominant with a prevalence of 25%.
Conclusion/Recommandation: The most represented HR-HPV genotypes were genotypes 45 (31.42%); genotypes 18 (28.57%) and genotypes 16 (17.13%). These observations shows a real genotypic diversity of HPV and makes it possible to question about the 95% efficacy of the HPV vaccination program based on Gardasil that protect against genotypes 16 and 18, in this part of the world.
Key Words: Human Papillomavirus Cervical Cytology Cameroon.