Anita BIH NGUTI
CaHReF 2018, Yaoundé Congres hall, 08 – 11 January 2019 , OAU034
Background: Sleep plays role in maintaining general wellbeing. Medical students are shown to be prone to sleep-related problems like sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. These sleep problems tend to be related to stress and poor academic performance. In Cameroon, there is no data on this concept.
Objectif: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students in the University of Buea, and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress.
Methodology: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study amongst medical students at the University of Buea. The targeted sample size was obtained using the Cochrane formula and by probability proportionate to size. Consenting students filled out a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors. The PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was used to assess sleep quality, sleep-wake habits and insomnia symptoms, while the ESS (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) was used to assess daytime sleepiness and the PSS (Perceived Stress Scale) used to assess the stress levels of the students. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23.
Results: We included 276 students and found that 250(90.6%) had high-stress levels. Students acquired on average, 5.68 ±1.3 hours of sleep each night. Poor sleep quality was present in 70.7 %, while 37.0% had excessive daytime sleepiness and 35.1% had insomnia symptoms. Multivariate regression models revealed significant associations between poor sleep quality and being a 5th-year medical student (AOR=2.55; 95%CI=[1.18-5.48]; p=0.016), consuming caffeine (AOR=6.124; 95%CI[1.79-20.84]; p=0.004) and hypnotic medication (AOR=1.86; 95%CI[1.08-3.21]; p=0.026); between EDS and being a female student (AOR=1.7; 95%CI[0.90-1.25]; p=0.043) and consuming hypnotic medications (AOR=1.86; 95%CI[1.10-3.15]; p=0.020). Finally between insomnia symptoms and being a female (AOR=1.860; 95%CI[1.11-3.12]; p=0.019).
CONCLUSION/RECOMMANDATION: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, EDS and high-stress levels are common among medical students. Caffeine intake adversely affects the sleep quality of medical students and the intake of hypnotic medications makes students more prone to poorer sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. Females apparently have more daytime sleepiness and insomnia symptoms than male students.
Such high rates of sleep disturbances among medical students as shown require great concerns for dealing with stresses facing medical students.
Key Words: Sleep Disturbances, Medical Students, Buea-University.