sandra ATEUTCHIA NGOUANET1, Fredy Brice SIMO NEMG2, Francine SADO YOUSSEU1 , Sebatien KENMOE2, Marie AMOUGOU2, Gladys MONAMELE1, Ibrahima ADAMOU, Maurice DEMANOU2
1University of Buea, Cameroon; 2Centre Pasteur of Cameroon
CaHReF 2018, Yaoundé Congres hall, 08 – 11 January 2019 , OAEI012
Background: HBV is an important blood borne virus. Although screening for HBsAg is routinely performed in blood banks transmission may occur due to window period.Donors with no HBsAg can transmit the virus. HBcAb is a contact marker for HBV. Therefore blood bearing this biological marker is susceptible of transmitting HBV.
Objectif: Aimed in evaluating the prevalence of Anti-HBc in blood donors tested negative for HBs antigen in the blood bank of the Regional Hospital of Garoua.
Methodology: A 4-month cross-sectional study was conducted from the 1st of March to the 30th of June at theRHG. Standardized questionnaires were administered to blood donors'. After obtaining their informed consent, blood was collected and transmitted to the blood bank for the detection of HBsAgusing two rapid tests: Fortress HBsAg (immunochromatography) kit and later on theSURASE B-96(TMB) an enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay for confirmation. Detection of HBcAb was later carried out in blood donors negative for HBsAgusing a diagnostic kit ONSITE HBV-5. Analysis of data was software SPSS.
Results: Of the 347 donors tested 141(40.6%) wereseropositive for HBsAg(excluded) and 206 (59.3%) seronegative for HBsAg. Male and female sex represented 165/206 (80.1%) and 41/206 (19.9%) respectively.According to the age groups, 27.7% were 18 to 27 years, 44.4% were 28 to 36 years, 22.2% were 37 to 45 years and 5.6 % were 46 to 60 years. The 206 negative sera were analyzed for anti-HBc antibodies and found 18 positive samples.The 18 samples positive for anti-HBc antibody showed that the male and female sex represented17 (94%) and 1 (6%) respectively and 3/18(16%) were HBeAg- positive.
Conclusion/Recommandation: The study showed that 8.7% of blood donors in Garoua already have been exposed to HBV, although their HBsAg tests were negative.This shows that, blood seronegative for HBsAg marker will be easily identified through HBcAb test if they are in the so-called core window period of the virus. Detecting this markerreduce the chance of latent cases of HBV infection and help promote blood safety thereby improving the efficacy of health intervention in Cameroon.
Key Words: HBV, HBcAb, Garoua, Blood donors, Prevalence.