Nelie Alida MEPOUBONG KENGNE1*, Jérôme ATEUDJIEU1, Florent Duclerc JUTCHA2, Caroline NGUNYI3, Desire KEPTCHUE3, Pierre WATCHO2
1M.A. SANTE (Meilleur Accès Aux Soins de Santé) ; 2University of Dschang; 3Bafoussam Regional Hospital
Background: The high incidence of severe malaria, trauma and postpartum hemorrhages are the main reason of transfusion needs in Cameroon. But the lack of procedural documents on the selection of donors, the collection, storage, the prescription and transfusion of blood questions the safety of transfused patients.
Objectif: To assess transfusion risks of acute infection transmission at the West Region referral hospital of Cameroon also called Bafoussam Regional Hospital (BRH).
Methodology: It was a longitudinal descriptive study that included from April to June 2017, 255 transfused patients. Data were collected using a preconceived and validated grid. From each patient, blood was collected before and from day 2 to day 7 after transfusion for thick blood smear (TBS) microscopy to diagnose malaria infections and for full blood count (FBC) to observe the variation of WBC which helped to confirm a probable transmission of acute infections. The cumulative incidence of patients with positive test for malaria occurring after transfusion and of abnormal variation of white blood cells was estimated.
Results: Of the 255 transfused patients 36(10.90 %) had a positive TBS before transfusion and 18 blood recipients (cumulative incidence = 10,06%) that were negative before transfusion had a positive TBS after. In total, FBC was carried out on 144 recipients before and after transfusion. A total of 71 (cumulative incidence rate = 49,3%) recipients had a post transfusional increase in PNN and 64 (cumulative incidence rate = 44,4%) had an increase of lymphocytes count after transfusion.
Conclusion/Recommandation: The results of this study permit us to conclude that transfusion exposes recipients of blood products to the transmission of acute infections. The assessment of the risks of transmission of acute infections during transfusion should be part of the transfusion procedures.
Key Words: Acute infections, Infectious risks, Blood transfusion.